Stone


Stone
   Egypt is rich in a variety of stones used for both construction and art. Stone was first used for construction in Early Dynastic tombsat Saqqaraand Abydos. The first fully stone building was the step pyramid of Djoser allegedly designed by Imhotep and built of limestone. Different types of limestone were used in the later pyramids and their associated temples. The finest limestone from the Tura quarries faced the pyramidal structure. Basalt was used for paving stones in the buildings. Granite was also used in the construction of the pyramids. Temples in the north were usually made of limestone, while many in the south were built of sandstone. Limestone could be melted down to make lime during the Roman Period, and as a result, very few temples made of this material survive; however, most domestic buildings and palaces were made of mudbrick rather than stone, so few survive.
   From the Predynastic Period onward, stone was also used to produce vessels, statues and jewelry. The various types included alabaster, anhydrite, basalt, breccia, gneiss, granodiorite, greywacke, jasper, serpentine, and later porphyry. Amethyst, carnelian, and turquoise were favored for jewelry. Only lapis lazuliappears to have been imported. Many of the quarries used by the Egyptians have been identified and studied. The most notable is the granite quarry at Aswan (Elephantine), but there were alabster and basalt quarries in the Fayum. Other quarries have been located in the Eastern Desert at Serabit el-Khadim and Wadi Maghara for turquoise and in the Western Desert at Gebel el-Asr, northwest of Abu Simbel, for gneiss, which was rediscovered in 1997.
Historical Dictionary Of Ancient Egypt by Morris L. Bierbrier

Ancient Egypt. A Reference Guide. . 2011.

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  • Stone — Stone, n. [OE. ston, stan, AS. st[=a]n; akin to OS. & OFries. st[=e]n, D. steen, G. stein, Icel. steinn, Sw. sten, Dan. steen, Goth. stains, Russ. stiena a wall, Gr. ?, ?, a pebble. [root]167. Cf. {Steen}.] 1. Concreted earthy or mineral matter;… …   The Collaborative International Dictionary of English

  • Stone — may refer to:Construction and building* Masonry, the building of structures from stone * Coade stone, a special form of vitreous stoneware, used for monumental work and architectural decoration * Standing stone, a solitary stone set vertically… …   Wikipedia

  • Stone — (englisch für Stein) steht für: Stone (Familienname), der Familienname Stone Stone (Band), eine finnische Thrash Metal Band Stone (Einheit), eine englische Masse Einheit Stone (Film), ein Thriller aus dem Jahr 2010 von John Curran Stone… …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • STONE (R.) — STONE RICHARD (1913 1991) Économiste anglais né en 1913, Richard Stone a commencé sa carrière chez un courtier londonien, avant de rejoindre en 1940 les rangs du Bureau central des statistiques, à l’initiative de John Maynard Keynes. Ses… …   Encyclopédie Universelle

  • stone — ► NOUN 1) hard, solid non metallic mineral matter of which rock is made. 2) a small piece of stone found on the ground. 3) a piece of stone shaped for a purpose, especially to commemorate something or to mark out a boundary. 4) a gem. 5) a hard… …   English terms dictionary

  • Stone — Stone, v. t. [imp. & p. p. {Stoned}; p. pr. & vb. n. {Stoning}.] [From {Stone}, n.: cf. AS. st?nan, Goth. stainjan.] 1. To pelt, beat, or kill with stones. [1913 Webster] And they stoned Stephen, calling upon God, and saying, Lord Jesus, receive… …   The Collaborative International Dictionary of English

  • stone — [stōn] n. [ME < OE stan, akin to Du steen, Ger stein < IE base * stāi , to become thick, compress, stiffen > L stiria, a drop (< stilla), Gr stear, tallow] 1. the hard, solid, nonmetallic mineral matter of which rock is composed 2. a… …   English World dictionary

  • stone — adverb. Combinations such as stone cold and stone dead, in which stone is used adverbially (‘like a stone’), have been recorded for centuries. More recently, stone has developed a freer adverbial use as a mere intensive equivalent to very or… …   Modern English usage

  • STONE (M. H.) — STONE MARSHALL HARVEY (1903 1989) Après ses études à l’université Harvard, Marshall Harvey Stone enseigna dans diverses universités: Columbia (1925 1927), Yale (1931 1933), Harvard (1927 1931, puis 1933 1946) et Chicago (depuis 1944). Il fut élu… …   Encyclopédie Universelle

  • Stone — Stone, Nicholas * * * (as used in expressions) Stone, Edward Durell Stone, Harlan Fiske Stone, Lucy Stone, Oliver Stone, Robert (Anthony) …   Enciclopedia Universal

  • STONE, I.F. — STONE, I.F. (Isidore Feinstein; 1907–1989), U.S. journalist, born in Philadelphia. Stone edited the liberal weekly The Nation, 1940–46. From 1952 until 1971 he published I.F. Stone s Weekly written by himself and noted for its criticism of… …   Encyclopedia of Judaism